Device Specifications

Intended Use

The intended use of the device is to facilitate CO rebreathing to quantify haemoglobin mass in order to determine the influence of a given exercise training intervention or physiological state.

The device exists in medical and non-medical versions. Please refer to the relevant product pages for indications and contra-indications.

Key Benefits

The assessment of blood volumes using the carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing technique has been around for more than 100 years. Despite the immense importance for blood volume in exercise performance the measurement has not become a routine measurement. One reason here fore is that the common/ manual approach is very much prone to human errors.

Our system limits these since the main source of error, the application of a very precise bolus of CO gas is performed fully automated. Also the administration of O2 is automated as this is applied on a demand basis. The system hence allows the operator to focus on the investigated subject in much greater detail than with the manual method which also provides a safety aspect. The handling of the CO gas cylinder is guided by the software which also provides an additional safety benefit. We normally encourage all new users to return a usability questionnaire and ease of use and simplicity are always rated very high. We focus on improving guidance and process help even further in corporation with customers.

Non-radioactive Blood Volume Measurement

The blood volume measurement is performed with the use of non-radioactive substances. The CO method offers the potential of easy, simple and cheap blood volume measurement as required blood analysis can be performed on standard blood gas analysers which are usually already available within most research institutions. Also, the organization does not need to store expensive radioactive test kits or hire specialized staff in order to perform the CO rebreathing routine.

Cases and References

The Detalo Performance is being used for athlete evaluation by multiple Olympic sport federations already. The blood volume analyser has also been used in clinical settings as well as in research institutions for scientific purposes. These have resulted in a number of scientific publications. Specific references can be obtained on request.

The Detalo Performance analyser has been taken and tested at high altitude in various scientific studies/ expeditions. One of the scientific studies tested the effects of four week altitude training at Sierra Nevada (2350 m) in Spain, while two physiological expeditions have successfully used the device at the Jungfraujoch Research Station at 3450 m altitude in Switzerland. In 2019 and 2020 the device was brought to the Peruvian Andes and +80 measurements were completed at 5100 m altitude in La Rinconada (the highest city of our planet). Lastly, the device is being used for one year under extreme conditions on the Antarctic continent at altitudes up to 3400 m (Concordia and Dumont d’Urville research stations) in collaboration with the French Polar Institute and the European Space Agency (ESA). Going a bit higher, the analyser has furthermore been tested and used during zero gravity flights as part of ESA’s parabolic flight campaigns. It should thus be safe to state that the device is robust and suitable for travel.

Reliability and Accuracy 

The stated reliability and accuracy values are based on scientific studies available at PubMed (PMID: 27633742; PMID: 28381454; PMID: 28135764 and PMID: 29704889). In these the %TE is reported between 0.8 and 1.6%.

Functionality of Software Provided

The software is meant to guide the test operator through the process of performing a measurement test. Test subject information is gathered, and the operator is able to select the needed CO dose. A measurement screen helps the operator to have an overview of the steps involved as well as to control each step of the process. Reminders and warnings help guide the operator to remember important elements such as blood samples and patient safety. There is an input screen for blood data that also shows the BV results from the test. Results can be printed directly or saved in Excel format. Software updates are free of charge for all customers and downloadable. Detalo Health are gathering customer feedback at all times and are constantly improving software and features accordingly. Customer specific requirements can be supported if feasible but will billed according to a separate agreement.

Configuration and Reporting

Patient reports contain test subject information, measured blood volume related data (BV, PV, RBCV and hemoglobin mass). Blood volume predictions according to Nadler formula is also included in report. Everything is saved in a raw excel format that cannot be changed and in a modifiable format to enter blood data at a later point. Reports can also be printed.

Software and Hardware Requirements

Our software requires the customer to provide a PC/ laptop (no Apple computer) running Windows 10 or later. PC should be connected to the internet to allow Detalo Health to monitor device functionality and need for maintenance. PC should be 2 GHz Intel processor launched 2015 or later. Screen resolution 1200×768 or better. PC must be under full control and maintenance from customer’s Cyber Security guidelines and control.


Our range of blood volume measurement devices is based on our patented technology. It is protected by the international PCT Patent PCT/EP2017/051919, European + UK Unitary Patetent EP3573528, Japanese patent 2019-562460, Chinese patent 2017800850205, Canadian (3047628) and patent pending US.

Safety and Certifications

Detalo Performance is a non-medical blood volume measurement device intended to be used for athletes to evaluate performance. The device is regulated as a non-medical device in accordance with EU Court ruling C-219/11 and we confirm that the equipment meets the regulatory requirements as such.

The medical product is CE Market Medical device and the non-medical product is CE marked as consumer electronics. Both are certified to the following standards:

  • IEC 60601-1 (including US national differences): Medical electrical equipment – Part 1: General requirements for basic safety and essential performance + IEC
  • 62304:2006+AMD1:2015: Medical device software: Software life cycle processes

The devices are designed to use carbon monoxide which is toxic to humans as it binds to haemoglobin and thereby limits O2 transport to organs. While the bolus of CO applied for the measurement can be compared to what is inhaled if smoking a cigarette, a %HbCO level of over 50% may result in seizure, coma, and fatality. The device also uses oxygen which comes with the risk of fire. The device is re-used across multiple test persons, which comes with the risk of viral or bacterial infection (hence the need to use anti-bacterial filters). The customer should be aware of local regulations and safety requirements for the supply, storage, use, and disposal of CO and O2.

The device has gone through a detailed risk management process in accordance with ISO 14971 and a number of safety features are included: It’s designed to minimize the amount of CO present in the system at any time and the use of a manually operated “push-to-prime” button on the CO supply is mandatory. There is a built-in safety controller that monitors valve configuration and the CO delivery mechanism. Each CO dose needs to be manually confirmed on the device every time and only a dose of a maximum of 150 ml can be applied. In case of a device failure, power-out or similar, all valves automatically shut down. There is a redundancy of valves to minimize the risk of unwanted release of CO. There is a redundancy of pressure sensors in the CO chamber to ensure the precision of CO dose determination.