Kidney disease, or renal disease is damage to or disease of a kidney. Kidney disease usually causes a loss of kidney function and can result in kidney failure. Kidney failure is known as the end-stage of kidney disease, where dialysis or a kidney transplant is the only treatment option.
Kidney failure can be divided into acute kidney failure or chronic kidney failure (CKD). While acute kidney failure is often reversible chronic kidney failure is not. Causes of CKD include diabetes, high blood pressure, nephrotic syndrome, and polycystic kidney disease. Complications with CKD include uremia, high blood pressure, fluid, and volume overload as well as heart disease and anemia.