Diagnosis of Anemia

What is Anemia?

Anemia is used to describe a conditions where red blood cell volume is either low or where red blood cells are dysfunctional in its oxygen carrying capacity.

Anaemia is a serious global public health problem that particularly affects young children and pregnant women. Global anemia prevalence in 2010 was 32.9% and accounted for 8.8% of the total disability from all conditions.

Distinguishing True Anemia from Dilutional Anemia

Patients with anemia report feelings of weakness, fatigue, or exercise intolerance but also other symptoms may manifest. Anemia is diagnosed based on a lowering of hemoglobin concentration below 130 g/l in males and 120 g/l in females. The measurement of hemoglobin concentration is an easy test to perform, but is limited in that the pathology for anemia remains unknown.

Accordingly, anemia may be the result of impaired production of red blood cells or increased destruction of red blood cells. In these cases the condition would be compliant with the definition of anemia (reduced red blood cell volume). Anemia may also be the result of an enhanced plasma volume while red blood cell volume is normal.

Anemia caused by enhanced plasma volume is also referred to as dilutional anemia (also pseudo anemia or hemodilitional anemia) since the total number of red blood cells is unaffected. While both conditions are termed anemia, they may require entirely different medical treatment.

Blood Volume Guided Treatment of Anemia

Without a blood volume test, it is very difficult to accurately establish whether anemia is caused by decreased red blood cell volume or an increased plasma volume.

This may be exemplified by a reported 46.7% overdiagnosis of anemia in hypervolemic patients when based on simple hemoglobin concentration measurement. Similar results have been found when measuring blood volumes in anemic dialysis patients using the Detalo Health Performance device.

Detalo Blood Volume Measurement Device

Detalo blood volume analysers determines total blood volume, red blood cell volume and plasma volume in humans in a rapid, safe and precise manner.

The Detalo Performance is to be used for athletes and science and is available for purchase today. The Detalo Clinical is currently going through the medical certification procedures and should be available for clinical use in 2021.