Kidney disease, or renal disease is damage to or disease of a kidney. Kidney disease usually causes a loss of kidney function to some degree and can result in kidney failure, the complete loss of kidney function. Kidney failure is known as the end-stage of kidney disease, where dialysis or a kidney transplant is the only treatment option.
Kidney failure can be divided into two categories: acute kidney failure or chronic kidney failure. While acute kidney failure is often reversible chronic kidney failure is not. Chronic failure affects about 1 in 1000 people. Causes of chronic kidney failure include diabetes, high blood pressure, nephrotic syndrome, and polycystic kidney disease. Complications are many and include uremia, high blood potassium, and volume overload. Complications of chronic failure also include heart disease, high blood pressure, and anemia.